To get a more accurate representation of the effects of inhaling e-cigarettes, the Birmingham researchers came up with a way to create condensed vapour, which is closer to what lung cells encounter.
"We should have a cautious skepticism that [e-cigarettes] are as safe as we are being led to believe", Thickett said.
Recent news revealed that vaping - which is supposed to be an alternative to cigarettes - is actually way more damaging to our body than we initially thought.
But scientists and health officials across the world are now divided over the safety of e-cigarettes.
Researchers mimicked vaping in the laboratory, testing the effect of e-cigarette vapour condensate on alveolar macrophages extracted from the lung tissue samples of eight non-smokers. With time these changes could lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) just as it is seen in those who smoke regular cigarettes they add. COPD includes diseases such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
The authors state that further research is actually needed to completely assess the effects, but this work shows that the idea that e-cigarettes are completely safe is questionable. Britain's public health authorities are pushing smokers to switch to it as a safer choice; experts in the United States have warned that electronic cigarettes increase the risk of nicotine addiction among young people, while the World Health Organization has said uneasily that warming up electronic cigarettes can lead to the formation of toxic substances.
New Zealand bans most foreigners from buying homes
Westpac's expectation is that nationwide annual house-price inflation will slow to around zero by the end of 2018, Stephens said. However, statistics paint a more complicated picture nationwide where foreign buyers account for only 3% of buyers overall.
Coca-Cola takes stake in Kobe Bryant-backed sports drink
The deal puts BodyArmor in Coke's powerful distribution network, on their delivery trucks throughout most of the United States. When he invested in BodyArmor in March 2014, the brand had just come off a year of $10 million in sales.
Iraqi Prime Minister cancels visit to Iran
The Central Bank of Iraq has notified to all banks in the country that using dollars with Iranian banks has been banned. President Donald Trump said: "Anyone doing business with Iran will NOT be doing business with the United States".
Previous studies have focused on the chemical composition of e-cigarette liquid before it is vaped.
Prof Thickett said while e-cigarettes were safer than traditional cigarettes, they may still be harmful in the long-term as research was in its infancy.
Britton said: "This indicates that long-term use of electronic cigarettes is likely to have adverse effects, as is widely recognised by leading health authorities in the United Kingdom including the Royal College of Physicians and Public Health England".
Martin Dockrell, who is the lead for tobacco control at Public Health England, said: "E-cigarettes are not 100% risk-free but they are clearly much less harmful than smoking".
You know how all the smokers switched from analogue cigarettes to new and supposedly healthier digital versions that need batteries and fluids purchasing from the weird shops that are popping up everywhere? Treatment with an antioxidant, however, restored that ability and helped reduce other damage caused by e-cigarette fluid, Thickett's team found.
The countries imposed steep tariffs on billions of dollars of each other's exports this summer and have threatened more. But Trump backed away from the agreement and the two nations have been locked in a tit-for-tat trade war ever since.
The Turkish currency began to recover after authorities this week took steps to help bank liquidity and limit swap transactions. President Donald Trump said he had authorised higher tariffs on aluminium and steel imports from Turkey .
Facebook has bought the rights to broadcast La Liga on the social media platform for free in India and 7 other Asian countries . Last year, Facebook bid US$600 million to stream Indian cricket but lost to Rupert Murdoch's 21st Century Fox Inc.
His current contract is due to expire next year, but Manchester United do have the option to extend it by a further season. With the path now clear, United hope that the task to keep De Gea has become that much easier.
Idukki's Munnar, a popular tourist destination, remained totally cut off according to local reports, following heavy inundation. Train services have been disrupted and road transport services are in disarray with stretches of roads coming under water.
President Donald Trump during his speech to United States service members at Fort Drum, New York, August 13, 2018. "It is not enough to merely have an American presence in space", Trump told troops at Fort Drum .
However, he also found that the former archbishop had shown no "remorse or contrition" for covering up Fletcher's crimes. Fletcher was found guilty in December 2004 on nine counts of child sexual abuse and died two years later in jail.
United Kingdom inflation data and retail sales numbers for the month of July are also due out this week. On Sunday, Liam Fox , minister of trade, also said the chance of a hard Brexit was about 60 per cent.
Pierson said she often had to placate Manigualt Newman, who she said was obsessed with the topic of Trump recordings. Trump on Monday denied the existence of any tape from " The Apprentice " in which he used the racial epithet.
Said to include "very little CGI", Corin Hardy and Co. will officially summon The Nun into theaters on September 7th. That's why YouTube removed an ad for the most recent horror film in New Line Cinema's Conjuring universe, The Nun .
And, good news, this will be the second system in a row that will have absolutely no impact to the United States of America. Continuity prevents a higher forecast, but Lane seems destined to eventually become a category-4 hurricane like Hector.
Trump's latest boost to the dollar: US-Turkey spat
The call for a boycott appears to be Erdogan's answer to the US decision to double tariffs on Turkish steel and aluminum imports. The imprisonment of United States pastor Andrew Brunson has weighed heavily on relations, leading to a series of escalations.
Trump revokes ex-CIA director John Brennan's security clearance
His White House has had difficulties with questions of whether Trump has any high-ranking African-Americans in his White House. He continued: "So I think it's something that had to be done". "Leaders behave like this in dictatorships, not democracies".
Qatar’s emir travels to crisis-hit Turkey in show of support
Last week, Washington doubled steel and aluminum tariffs on Turkey over its continued detention of the US pastor Andrew Brunson. At any rate, it's not clear how Erdogan plans to enforce this boycott if indeed he intends to enforce it at all.
Putin ready to meet Kim Jong Un at 'early date'
The Russian president had already invited Mr Kim and President Moon of South Korea to an economic forum in Vladivostok next month. And joint economic projects, like the Kaesong industrial center which closed in 2016, could bring thousands of jobs to the North.