To get a more accurate representation of the effects of inhaling e-cigarettes, the Birmingham researchers came up with a way to create condensed vapour, which is closer to what lung cells encounter.
"We should have a cautious skepticism that [e-cigarettes] are as safe as we are being led to believe", Thickett said.
Recent news revealed that vaping - which is supposed to be an alternative to cigarettes - is actually way more damaging to our body than we initially thought.
But scientists and health officials across the world are now divided over the safety of e-cigarettes.
Researchers mimicked vaping in the laboratory, testing the effect of e-cigarette vapour condensate on alveolar macrophages extracted from the lung tissue samples of eight non-smokers. With time these changes could lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) just as it is seen in those who smoke regular cigarettes they add. COPD includes diseases such as asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
The authors state that further research is actually needed to completely assess the effects, but this work shows that the idea that e-cigarettes are completely safe is questionable. Britain's public health authorities are pushing smokers to switch to it as a safer choice; experts in the United States have warned that electronic cigarettes increase the risk of nicotine addiction among young people, while the World Health Organization has said uneasily that warming up electronic cigarettes can lead to the formation of toxic substances.
Flood toll in India's tourist hotspot Kerala jumps to 67
Idukki's Munnar, a popular tourist destination, remained totally cut off according to local reports, following heavy inundation. Train services have been disrupted and road transport services are in disarray with stretches of roads coming under water.
Constellation Invests Additional $4B in Pot Grower
Canopy, based in Smiths Falls, Ontario, doesn't now have any operations south of the border, where marijuana is banned federally. Canada's largest cannabis company has announced they have closed the biggest deal in the history of the legal cannabis industry.
Trump signs US$716b defense authorization bill
President Donald Trump during his speech to United States service members at Fort Drum, New York, August 13, 2018. "It is not enough to merely have an American presence in space", Trump told troops at Fort Drum .
Previous studies have focused on the chemical composition of e-cigarette liquid before it is vaped.
Prof Thickett said while e-cigarettes were safer than traditional cigarettes, they may still be harmful in the long-term as research was in its infancy.
Britton said: "This indicates that long-term use of electronic cigarettes is likely to have adverse effects, as is widely recognised by leading health authorities in the United Kingdom including the Royal College of Physicians and Public Health England".
Martin Dockrell, who is the lead for tobacco control at Public Health England, said: "E-cigarettes are not 100% risk-free but they are clearly much less harmful than smoking".
You know how all the smokers switched from analogue cigarettes to new and supposedly healthier digital versions that need batteries and fluids purchasing from the weird shops that are popping up everywhere? Treatment with an antioxidant, however, restored that ability and helped reduce other damage caused by e-cigarette fluid, Thickett's team found.
The case against Manafort has long centered on whether he lied when he claimed not to control any foreign bank accounts. Gates said he helped Manafort commit crimes in an effort to lower his tax bill and fund his lavish lifestyle.
Health officials say more than 100 people from 21 states, including Kansas, have reported contracting the measles this year. In one in 15 cases, measles can cause life-threatening complications including pneumonia, convulsions and encephalitis.
United Kingdom inflation data and retail sales numbers for the month of July are also due out this week. On Sunday, Liam Fox , minister of trade, also said the chance of a hard Brexit was about 60 per cent.
The Central Bank of Iraq has notified to all banks in the country that using dollars with Iranian banks has been banned. President Donald Trump said: "Anyone doing business with Iran will NOT be doing business with the United States".
And, good news, this will be the second system in a row that will have absolutely no impact to the United States of America. Continuity prevents a higher forecast, but Lane seems destined to eventually become a category-4 hurricane like Hector.
His current contract is due to expire next year, but Manchester United do have the option to extend it by a further season. With the path now clear, United hope that the task to keep De Gea has become that much easier.
Hayden, asked for his response to Trump's announced review of his security clearance , replied in an email, "Meh". President Trump has also threatened to remove clearances from eight former officials and one current official.
Italy's government said it meant to revoke the company's contract and hit it with a fine of 150 million euros ($170 million). A local industry confederation official spoke of the collapse of the Morandi bridge "in 10 years".
That shift stems from a shift among Democrats - nearly three-quarters now approve of Mueller's work, 72%, up 10 points since June. Forty-two-percent said they believed he committed wrongful acts, while 43 percent said he did not.
It would demonstrate that India would be on par with the developed countries in this area. "We are not partisan", he said. Industry body Ficci welcomed "firm resolve" of the prime minister to position India among the top economies of the world.
Turkey issues sharp tariffs on USA imports
The Turkish currency began to recover after authorities this week took steps to help bank liquidity and limit swap transactions. President Donald Trump said he had authorised higher tariffs on aluminium and steel imports from Turkey .
Australia archbishop gets house detention for abuse coverup
However, he also found that the former archbishop had shown no "remorse or contrition" for covering up Fletcher's crimes. Fletcher was found guilty in December 2004 on nine counts of child sexual abuse and died two years later in jail.
Arrest after dozens overdose in Connecticut park
More than a dozen people overdosed on synthetic marijuana July 4 in New Haven, The Associated Press reported at the time. CT police have made multiple arrests in connection with 76 overdose cases at a New Haven park.
Russian Federation was satisfied with the meeting with trump
The benchmark MOEX stock index was 0.2 percent higher at 2,290.9, while its dollar-traded peer RTS gained 1.91 percent to 1,080.1. For that reason, it said the US insistence on Russian Federation allowing inspections "appears especially hypocritical".
New Zealand bans most foreigners from buying homes
Westpac's expectation is that nationwide annual house-price inflation will slow to around zero by the end of 2018, Stephens said. However, statistics paint a more complicated picture nationwide where foreign buyers account for only 3% of buyers overall.
Qatar’s emir travels to crisis-hit Turkey in show of support
Last week, Washington doubled steel and aluminum tariffs on Turkey over its continued detention of the US pastor Andrew Brunson. At any rate, it's not clear how Erdogan plans to enforce this boycott if indeed he intends to enforce it at all.